The Damiano Defence is a chess opening beginning with the moves: 1. e4 e5 2. Nf3 f6?
The defence is one of the oldest chess openings, with games dating back to the 16th century. Ironically, the opening is named after the Portuguese master Pedro Damiano (1480–1544), who condemned it as weak. In 1847, Howard Staunton wrote of 2...f6, "This move occurs in the old work of Damiano, who gives some ingenious variations on it. Lopez, and later authors, have hence entitled it 'Damiano's Gambit'."
Staunton's contemporary George Walker instead, more logically, reserved the term "Damiano Gambit" for the knight sacrifice played by White on the third move: 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 f6 3.Nxe5. Staunton referred to 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6, a highly respected move then and now, as "Damiano's defence to the K. Kt.'s opening".
King's Knight Opening (includes Gunderam Defence, Greco Defence, Damiano Defence, Elephant Gambit, and Latvian Gambit)